Although there are also no records of any military build-up in Wessex in Egbert’s early reign, this must have been where he concentrated his efforts because, between c. 815-820 CE, he could effectively campaign in Dumnonia and in 825 CE he was able to mount an effective offense against Mercia itself. He was the son of a Kentish noble but claimed descent from Cerdic (reigned 519-34), founder of Wessex, the kingdom of the West Saxons in southern England. The entry for 838 CE continues: “When he [Egbert] heard this, he proceeded with his army against them and fought with them at Hengeston where he put to flight both”, winning the field and dispersing the enemy. unnamed wife of King Egbert of Wessex; Authority control Q154934 ISNI: 0000 0003 9994 0977 VIAF ID: 295559558 GND ID: 119009285 Library of Congress authority ID: nb2008005344 Oxford Dictionary of National Biography ID: 8581. Under Egbert, Surrey, Sussex, Kent, Essex, and Mercia, along with parts of Dumnonia, were conquered. Then sent he his son, Aethelwulf into Kent with a large detachment from the main body of the army, accompanied by his bishop, Elstan, and his alderman, Wulfherd; who drove Baldred, the king, northward over the Thames. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. None of these events has any historical basis but the seamless succession of Aethelwulf, with the support of the church, is the probable historical inspiration. The … Kingship, a worldwide phenomenon, can be elective, as in medieval Germany, but is usually hereditary; it may be absolute or constitutional and…. THE COINAGE OF ECGBEORHT, KING OF WESSEX, 802-39 By C. E. BLUNT THE recent discovery in Gloucestershire of a new variety of the early penny of Ecgbeorht, with a head of the king similar to that found on the coins of Baldred of Kent, has prompted me to put down some notes on the coinage of the Wessex king. The kingdom he stabilized and developed would pass to his successors until it was elevated to its height under the reign of Albert the Great and became the birthplace of the Kingdom of England; that would not have been possible without the contribution of Egbert of Wessex. These campaigns were probably encouraged by Dumnonia’s lucrative ports and trade contacts, skill in metalworking, and other resources Egbert would require to enlarge and equip an army. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Our mission is to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The Vikings did not engage in battle the same way the West Franks or West Saxons did and, after Charmouth, Egbert knew this and was better prepared for them in 838 CE. (2018, November 19). Although later scribes quite likely did embellish on Egbert’s lineage to link him with Cerdic, there is nothing in the contemporary accounts which support the claim that Egbert was anything less than a capable and efficient medieval king. Web. Beornwulf survived the Battle of Ellandun but was killed fighting against the East Angles in 826 CE and was succeeded by Ludeca (r. 826-827 CE) who died in battle the following year trying to complete Beornwulf’s campaign to suppress East Anglia’s revolt. By c. 830 CE, Wessex controlled resources & trade from the south of Britain all the way through to the north. He takes Athelstan into his confidence, sensing that men like his son, the devout Prince [[Aethelwulf]], and his advisor, the Bishop [[Edmund]], wo… Thank you! Fils du roi Ecgberht, il devient le souverain du Kent et des autres royaumes du sud-est de l'Angleterre en 825, après la victoire de son père à la bataille d'Ellendun. Baldred was the client-king of Kent under Beornwulf and his loss would have been significant to Mercia. Ecgberht, King of Wessex primary name: Egbert other name: Ecgberht other name: Egbercht Details individual; ruler; royal/imperial; English; Anglo-Saxon; Male . thirty-two surviving coins issued under Ecgberht, king of the West Saxons (802–39), from a mint (or mints) in Wessex. Egbert of Wessex (l. c. 770-839 CE, r. 802-839 CE; also given as Ecgberht, Ecbert) was the most powerful and influential king of Wessex prior to the reign of Alfred the Great (r. 871-899 CE). In 836 CE, the Danes invaded at Charmouth (modern-day Carhampton in Somerset) with a fleet of 35 ships and were met by Egbert and his army. It is probable that he did engage in duplicity and back-door deals to achieve his ends but in this, he would have been no different than Charlemagne or any other leader, past or present. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, the Viking-Dumnonia forces seem to have declared war on Wessex and taken up a position in present-day Cornwall, daring Egbert to meet them. Historian Heather Edwards has suggested that Ealhmund was probably a Kentish royal scion, whose pedigree was forged to give his son Egbert the descent from Cerdic requisite to reigning in Wessex. Scholars who claim Wessex declined in the 830’s CE point to Egbert’s defeat by the Vikings in 836 CE but this was a single loss to a previously unknown opponent and hardly characterizes a decline. He had succeeded his father originally to the Kingdom of Kent (believed to be … Some never locate a single specimen, whilst luckier searchers achieve their aim. ANGLO-SAXON, Kings of Mercia. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle entry for that year states how “a great slaughter was made there and the Danes remained masters of the field” indicating a significant victory for the Viking raiders. Egbert was gathering the forces which would win the Battle of Ellandun & shatter Mercian supremacy. Egbert becomes king of Wessex; probable support from. Egbert of Wessex dies; succeeded by son Aethelwulf. In 829 he conquered Mercia itself, but he lost it in the following year to the Mercian king Wiglaf. This assault was easily repelled by the Shore Guard because the Vikings were surprised by the resistance they met; but they would return later in greater force and be far better prepared. Wiglaf regains throne of Mercia; asserts Mercian autonomy. He was the second of five sons of King Æthelwulf. Nothing is known of his youth beyond his possible relation to Eahlmund and the claim that he could trace his ancestry back to Cerdic (r. 519-540 CE), the founder and first king of Wessex.Thi… AR Penny .Duda, moneyer. About Egbert, king of Wessex. Æþelwulf was the son of Ecgberht, King of Wessex and he came to the throne, and descended from Ine’s … Even so, it is possible that Egbert descended from Cerdic and a West Saxon noble who was also connected to the Kingdom of Kent would not have been unusual. Mark, published on 19 November 2018 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Even though Mercia would later assert itself and reclaim some of its lands and independence, it would never be the power it had been before Ellandun. Ecgberht; Depiction of Ecgberht from the Genealogical Chronicle of the English Kings, a late 13th-century manuscript in the British Library. See Details. Egbert (Ecgberht in Anglo Saxon) king of Wessex (802-39), and the first Saxon king recognized as sovereign of all England . In the TV series Vikings, Egbert is seen granting land to Viking settlers he will later betray, sending Aethelwulf to slaughter the Viking settlement, and later granting land to other Vikings when he has earlier secretly abdicated rule to Aethelwulf. If one assumes a Kentish origin, then he would have grown up during the period of Mercian supremacy of the kingdom. He seems to have reasserted Wessex’s independence from Mercia but there are no records of how nor of military campaigns between the two kingdoms. By the time Egbert was born in c. 770 CE, Mercia was the dominant power and was ruling Kent through client-kings (as they had, on and off, from as early as 664 CE). The historian Roger Collins, for example, refers to him as “the Kentish adventurer”, not a noble or prince, and credits his later prominence in history to “West Saxon propaganda” (196). A freelance writer and former part-time Professor of Philosophy at Marist College, New York, Joshua J. Crowned at … King Egbert of Wessex. See Details. 796-821. Afterwards, he swiftly took Mercian territory, installed his son Aethelwulf (r. 839-858 CE) as sub-king, and neutralized Mercian aggression. In the 780s Egbert was forced into exile by Offa of Mercia and Beorhtric of Wessex, but on Beorhtric's death in 802 Egbert returned and took the throne.He was the father of Athelwulf of Wessex. During the period when Wiglaf returned as King of Mercia, Sigered is recorded as king of the East Saxons in a lease of land in Hertfordshire dated [829/37] [231] . fled from his cousin Beorhtric, taking refuge in the court of Charlemagne, returning when Beorhtric died, poisoned by his wife. +SVVEFNEARD. In 828 CE he conquered North-Wales and in 829 CE he accepted the submission of the Kingdom of Northumbria and, at the same time, drove Wiglaf from his throne and took direct control of Mercia. When Ecgberht, King of Wessex was born in 0775, in Wessex, his father, Ealhmund of Kent, was 25 and his mother, Princess of Kent name unknown, was 13. Egbert is often characterized by historians as operating outside the boundaries of acceptable diplomacy. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. Written by Joshua J. He was Alfred's father, and had taken his son to Rome as a small boy. Egbert was possibly born in Kent, “the son of the short-lived ruler of that kingdom called Eahlmund r. 784-785 CE” (Collins,196). Ecgberht, King of Wessex. Other dates 769-771-839 (birth date uncertain) Biography King of the West Saxons;. A year before his death Egbert won a stunning victory over Danish and Cornish Briton invaders at Hingston Down (now in Cornwall). The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. His father was Ealhmund of Kent. Historically, Ecgberht was installed by the Vikings as a puppet king of Northumbria in … https://www.ancient.eu/King_Egbert_of_Wessex/. His Kentish origin is supported by the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles but has been called into question by recent scholarship claiming he was originally from Wessex. "King Egbert of Wessex." His Kentish origin is supported by the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles but has been called into question by recent scholarship claiming he was originally from Wessex. Æthelwulf. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). ANGLO-SAXON, Kings of Mercia. Reasonator; PetScan; Scholia; Statistics; Search depicted; Subcategories. His father was Ealhmund of Kent.In the 780s Ecgberht was forced into exile to Charlemagne's court in the Frankish Empire by Offa of Mercia & Beorhtric of Wessex, but on Beorhtric's death in 802 Ecgberht famous and took a throne. King Æþelwulf of Wessex died on 13th January 858 AD. For the 7th century king of Kent, see Ecgberht of Kent. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/King_Egbert_of_Wessex/. In the 780s Egbert was forced into exile by Offa of Mercia and Beorhtric of Wessex, but on Beorhtric's death in 802 Egbert returned and took the throne. Ealhmund's wife is not known, however, he is identified as the father of: Ecgberht, King of Wessex +AECCBEAFLH" … Updates? Throughout the character’s appearance in Vikings, he is routinely depicted as clever, conniving, and untrustworthy which, as noted, has no historical basis but may draw upon supposition concerning his rise to power and consolidation of Wessex. Ecbert of Wessex Played by Linus Roacheby The HISTORY Channel (Copyright, fair use). 1 This rare West Saxon coinage first emerged under Beorhtric (786–802) and can be traced down to the reign of Æthelred I (865–71). Ecgberht (771/775 – 839), also spelled Egbert, Ecgbert, or Ecgbriht, was King of Wessex from 802 until his death in 839. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. This characterization is possibly drawn from the historical Egbert’s initiatives in consolidating his kingdom but is largely fictionalized and without any detailed historical basis. $50.00 0 Bids 4d 12h. Beorhtric becomes king of Wessex with Mercian support; Egbert in exile in Francia. In 789 Egbert was driven into exile on the European continent by the West Saxon king Beorhtric and his ally, the powerful Mercian king Offa (d. 796). We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. He married Rædburh of Francia in Wessex. He was succeeded by four of his sons in turn, each dying without adult sons of their own to take the throne, until finally his youngest boy became king. Mercia had lost territory, power, and prestige but was still ruled by Mercian kings. He was expelled from his kingdom [826] [230] . By c. 830 CE, he was the most powerful king in the land and Wessex controlled resources and trade from the south of Britain all the way through to the north. Egbert died of natural causes in 839 CE and his son Aethelwulf succeeded him without opposition due to support from the church. $50.00 0 Bids 3d 14h. Egbert remained in exile in Francia at this time but, when Beorhtric died in 802 CE, Charlemagne seems to have supported Egbert’s bid for power and he became king of Wessex. Issue. Egbert of Wessex campaigns in Dumnonia; conquers region. To the Scandinavians, Saxons, and Slavs, he seemed invincible on the battlefield and few were willing to contest with him even before the Saxon Wars (722-804 CE) in which Charlemagne conquered Saxony and slaughtered thousands. His current state is unknown, but is presumed dead along with the rest of his family. He maintained Mercian superiority in the region and Wessex operated as more or less his puppet kingdom. 19/05/2020 Dernier match 334-255-1 Record 56.61% Pourcentage de victoire Ecgberht of Wessex Penny December 18, 2020 December 26, 2020 Peter 0 Comments. Last modified November 19, 2018. Although Wessex did not retain the kind of power it had over Mercia after c. 830 CE, Egbert could still mobilize a force and win battles as late as 838 CE, one year before his death. Nothing is known of his youth beyond his possible relation to Eahlmund and the claim that he could trace his ancestry back to Cerdic (r. 519-540 CE), the founder and first king of Wessex. King Cuthred of Wessex (r. 740-756 CE) had defeated Mercia and elevated Wessex (and so Kent) during his reign but these gains were lost during the reigns of his successors Sigeberht (r. 756-757 CE) and Cynewulf (r. 757-786 CE). He has taught history, writing, literature, and philosophy at the college level. The victory was a turning point in English history because it destroyed Mercian ascendancy and left Wessex the strongest of the English kingdoms. Even so, contrary to the claims of a number of scholars, it is not as though Wessex declined in power after 830 CE. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2021) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. Beorhtric was supported by Offa, however, who sealed a contract with Wessex by marrying his daughter Eadburh to Beorhtric; Egbert was driven into exile and fled to Francia. Unlike many of his fellow Christians in Wessex, Ecbert possesses an understanding of a pagan culture like the Vikings, mainly as a result of his fascination with the Romans and their world-view prior to their Christianization. King Egbert is featured in the TV series Vikings (where he is called Ecbert, played by English actor Linus Roache) and is depicted as mercenary, manipulative, and self-serving for the most part, though still a cultured, intelligent, and articulate monarch. $40.00 0 Bids 17h 2m. As king of Wessex, Egbert set about earning his royal spurs. Mark, J. J. 852-874. Offa died in 796 CE and Ecgfrith, his successor, soon after. Details of the Battle of Ellandun have been lost, or were never recorded, and the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles are notorious for brief and tantalizing entries so there is no account of how Egbert mobilized or led his army. Charlemagne seems to have disliked Offa as it is said he was outraged when Offa proposed an alliance which would be sealed by the marriage of Offa’s son Ecgfrith (r. 796 CE) to one of Charlemagne’s daughters, Bertha. In the 820’s CE, Louis the Pious would still have been able to spare resources to support Egbert in Wessex but, as that decade progressed, he was contending with Slavic incursions, rebellions, and then a series of civil wars and so had his own problems to deal with. Sculpture of Charlemagne - Abbey of Saint John at Müstair, by The HISTORY Channel (Copyright, fair use). The entry in the Chronicles for 825 CE stating that Egbert sent Aethelwulf to Kent to depose Baldred is considered off by a few months or a year and that probably happened in 826 CE. An Anglo-Saxon coin of any description is on the wish-list of lots of detectorists. Ecgberht was presumed to become King of Northumbria after the death of his father at the hands of Bjorn and his defeat against the Great Heathen Army. The nobleman Cenwulf of Mercia (r. 798-821 CE) took the throne (probably after assassinating Ecgfrith) and continued Offa’s policies regarding Wessex and its king. … Please support Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation. In 815 the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that he sent an army to fight the Dumnonia, who ruled an area roughly equivalent to Cornwall. Egbert, also spelled Ecgberht, or Ecgbryht, (died 839), king of the West Saxons from 802 to 839, who formed around Wessex a kingdom so powerful that it eventually achieved the political unification of England (mid-10th century). Ancient History Encyclopedia. It is probable that Egbert came from Kent, however, and was descended from the king Egbert of Kent (r. 664-673 CE) or, almost certainly, Egbert II (r.765-c.779 CE) the father of Eahlmund. He immediately removed Wessex from the Mercian confederation and consolidated his power as an independent ruler. The tendency among historians is to either downplay Egbert’s contributions entirely or attribute them to double-dealing or later exaggeration. In 850, Æthelbald's elder brother Æthelstan defeated the Vikings in the first recorded sea battle in English history, but he is not recorded afterwards and … Although Egbert would retain control of the north, his grasp on Mercia slipped in 830 CE when Wiglaf returned from exile and regained his throne. The new coin may be described as follows: Obv. However he conducted the campaign, it was successful. Whereupon the men of Kent submitted to him; as did also the inhabitants of Surrey and Sussex, and Essex. His father was Ealhmund of Kent. By virtue of long-dormant hereditary claims, Egbert was accepted as king in Kent, Sussex, Surrey, and Essex. It was not just the magnitude of the empire that posed a challenge, however, but the loss of the commanding presence of Charlemagne. Mark, Joshua J. Related Content ANGLO-SAXON, Kings of Mercia. Little is known of the first 20 years of Egbert’s reign. He surrendered to Ecgberht King of Wessex after the defeat of Cenwulf King of Mercia in 825 [229]. They were the parents of at least 1 son and 1 daughter. 2 Following the lead of Michael Dolley, it has been customary to attribute these pennies to either Southampton or Winchester. Æthelberht was first recorded as a witness to a charter in 854. Egbert of Wessex → Ecgberht, King of Wessex – Wikipedia policy is that titles should reflect reliable sources, and the list of works above shows that, apart from one reprint, the spelling 'Egbert' has not been used in academic works since 2000. Cenwulf of Mercia died in 821 CE and was succeeded by his brother Ceolwulf I (r. 821-823 CE) who was then deposed by the nobleman Beornwulf (r. 823-826 CE) while Egbert was gathering his forces which would win the Battle of Ellandun and shatter Mercian supremacy. Æthelwulf est roi du Wessex de 839 à sa mort, le 13 janvier 858. Mercia dominates Kent; rules through client kings. England Around 910 CEby Philg88 (CC BY-SA). Egbert, also spelled Ecgberht, or Ecgbryht, (died 839), king of the West Saxons from 802 to 839, who formed around Wessex a kingdom so powerful that it eventually achieved the political unification of England (mid-10th century). Instead, in c 815 CE, Egbert led his armies west to conquer the region of Dumnonia (modern Cornwall) on his border. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Egbert exiles Wiglaf of Mercia; rules Mercia directly. This claim is made by later genealogies, however, which were written by the scribes of Wessex after Egbert had already established himself as a powerful king and so may not be reliable. License. This category has the following 4 subcategories, out of 4 total. This achievement should not be seen as a true unification of the kingdoms it was as fleeting in historical terms, as the supremacy of the Mercian Kings, Ethelbald and Offa. The Vikings appear to have made a treaty with the Cornish people of Dumnonia, who had been subject to Wessex since Egbert’s campaigns in c. 815 CE. Ecgberht of Northumbriawasthe son of King Aelle. Egbert of Wessex was born circa 769 to Ealhmund of Kent and died 839 of unspecified causes. The son of Ealhmund, king in Kent in 784 and 786, Egbert was a member of a family that had formerly held the West Saxon kingship. It’s a Ecgberht of Wessex penny, who reigned … Mercia was an autonomous state by 831 CE, operating without regard to Wessex’s interests, but it was nowhere near as powerful as it had been and never would be again. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. Clash Royale CLAN TAG #URR8PPP For the 7th century king of Kent, see Ecgberht of Kent. Egbert was possibly born in Kent, “the son of the short-lived ruler of that kingdom called Eahlmund r. 784-785 CE” (Collins,196). Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Egbert, The Catholic Encyclopedia - Biography of Egbert. Mark, Joshua J. Even so, Charlemagne did nothing at this time to upset Offa’s plans in Wessex – possibly because Beorhtric had a legitimate claim to the throne which superseded Egbert’s. Books Although the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles claim 827 CE as the year of Wessex’s complete supremacy, this date has been challenged by archeological and literary evidence. The empire of the Franks was secure under the reign of Charlemagne but, when he died in 814 CE, he was succeeded by his son Louis the Pious (r. 814-840 CE) who had greater difficulty managing his enormous realm. Egbert (also spelt Ecgberht) (c. 775 –839) was King of Wessex from 802 until 839. Egbert of Wessex (also spelled Ecgberht, Ecgbert or Ecgbriht; 769 or 771 – 839) was King of Wessex from 802 until his death in 839. Ecgberht, King of WessexVue d'ensemble. Sculpture of Charlemagne - Abbey of Saint John at Müstairby Wladyslaw Sojka (GNU FDL). Ecgberht (771/775 – 839), also spelled Egbert, Ecgbert, or Ecgbriht, Ecgbeorht, was King of Wessex from 802 until his death in 839. The Chronicles note a string of victories following Ellandun and in 827 CE states: “Egbert, in the course of the same year, conquered the Mercian kingdom, and all that is south of the Humber, being the eighth king who was sovereign of all the British dominions.”. His defeat in 836 CE, sometimes attributed to a lack of resources or support from Louis the Pious, could as easily have been caused by lack of preparation and surprise. Egbert (also spelled Ecgberht, Ecgbert or Ecgbriht; 769 or 771 – 839) was King of Wessex from 802 until his death in 839. Coenwulf. Burgred. Æthelbald (died 860) was King of Wessex from 855 to 860. Following the outing of Baldred, Egbert claimed kingship of Kent as overlord to Aethelwulf who served as his client king there as well as over Essex, Sussex, and Surrey. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. The entry in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles for 825 CE reads: Egbert, king of the West-Saxons, and Beornwulf, king of Mercia, fought a battle at Wilton [modern day Wiltshire], in which Egbert gained the victory, but there was great slaughter on both sides. He was the third son of King Æthelwulf by his first wife, Osburh. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... King, a supreme ruler, sovereign over a nation or a territory, of higher rank than any other secular ruler except an emperor, to whom a king may be subject. Egbert was the first king of Wessex to completely subdue Mercia and the stability he provided allowed for further development of the kingdom as well as the resources to withstand the Viking raids. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. Linking Egbert to Cerdic would have enhanced his status and it was a fairly common practice for the scribes of kings to attribute to their liege impressive pedigrees even if they could not be proven. In 786 CE, Cynewulf of Wessex died and the nobleman Beorhtric (r. 786-802 CE) was in line to assume the throne but was challenged by Egbert – who seemingly comes out of nowhere to assert his right to rule Wessex (thus arguing for Wessex nobility as his origin). 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